The demise of the Noble Prophet (ﷺ)18 min read

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The demise of the Noble Prophet (ﷺ)

There is a particular disagreement regarding the date of the birth of the honorable Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him; however, most historians have mentioned his demise on the 12th of Rabi’ al-Awwal.

The Reality of the Prophet’s, (ﷺ), Passing

Allah, the Exalted, said to His beloved Prophet, ():

إِنَّكَ مَيِّتٌۭ وَإِنَّهُم مَّيِّتُونَ ٣٠

Verily, you are to die and they are to die.(39:30)

The commentator of Tafsir Ahsan al-Bayan mentions while interpreting this Quranic verse: Through this verse, the confirmation of the demise of the Prophet, peace be upon him, is established. Therefore, it is a belief concerning the Prophet’s demise that he does not continue to live in Barzakh (the intermediary state between this world and the Hereafter) in the same way as he was in this world. This belief contradicts the Quranic texts. Instead, just like other humans, he also experienced death, and he was buried. In the grave, he undoubtedly has a Barzakhi (intermediary) life, the nature of which is unknown to us, but he was not granted worldly life again in the grave. (Tafsir Ahsan al-Bayan, Page: 1085)

The farewell signs of the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, were evident even before his passing, indicating that he was the Messenger of the appointed term. Some of these farewell signs are mentioned as follows:

The revelation of Surah An-Nasr

The Lord of the Worlds revealed this Surah to convey the indication of the Prophet’s demise.

إِذَا جَآءَ نَصْرُ ٱللَّهِ وَٱلْفَتْحُ ١

(O Prophet,) When there comes Allah’s help and the Victory, (110:1)

وَرَأَيْتَ ٱلنَّاسَ يَدْخُلُونَ فِى دِينِ ٱللَّهِ أَفْوَاجًۭا ٢

and you see people entering Allah’s (approved) religion in multitudes, (110:2)

فَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ وَٱسْتَغْفِرْهُ ۚ إِنَّهُۥ كَانَ تَوَّابًۢا ٣

then pronounce the purity and praise of your Lord, and seek forgiveness from Him. Surely He is Ever-Relenting. (110:3)

Conversation with Sa’idna Mu’adh (رضي الله عنه) during the Farewell Journey

Sa’idna Mu’adh bin Jabal (رضي الله عنه) narrated that when the Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) set out towards Yemen (in the 10th year of Hijrah), he accompanied him. While Sa’idna Mu’adh was riding, the Prophet (ﷺ) gave him some instructions. After their conversation, the Prophet (ﷺ) said:

يَا مُعَاذُ إِنَّكَ عَسَى أَنْ لَا تَلْقَانِي بَعْدَ عَامِي هَذَا وَلَعَلَّكَ أَنَّ ثَمُرَّ بِمَسْجِدِي هَذَا، وَقَبْرِي فَبَكَى مُعَاذُ جَشَعًا لِفِرَاقِ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ. صحيح البخاری : 4970

Mu’adh, it is possible that after this year, we may not meet again, and it’s possible that you may pass by my mosque or my grave.” Upon hearing these words, Sa’idna Mu’adh became deeply saddened by the thought of parting from the Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) and began to cry.

Twenty Days of Seclusion

During Ramadan, you used to observe a seclusion of ten days every year. However, in the year of your passing, you observed a seclusion of twenty days. Twice-Yearly Quran Recitation Normally, you would complete the recitation of the Quran once a year with the Angel Gabriel. But in the year of your passing, you completed it twice.

Farewell Sermon’s Farewell Words

On the occasion of your farewell sermon, you said some things and performed certain actions that indicated your departure from this world. Even Sa’idna Jabir mentioned that he saw you on the day of sacrifice riding a mount and making an offering. You said, ‘Take your rites from me, for I do not know if I will perform Hajj after this year.’ (Sahih Muslim: 1297)

Further, during the occasion of Hajjat al-Wida (the Farewell Pilgrimage), you engaged in conversation, saying:

أَلَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ فَإِنَّمَا أَنَا بَشَرٌ يُوشِكُ أَنْ يَأْتِي رَسُولُ رَبِّي فَأُجِيبَO people, I am but a human being, and soon a messenger from my Lord will come to me. I will respond to my Lord’s call and depart. Sahih Muslim: 2408

The duty of conveying the religion rests with the Prophet, and when the task of conveying the religion is completed, he departs from this world. On the occasion of Hajjat al-Wida (the Farewell Pilgrimage), you had completed the religion, and you had conveyed the entire religion to the people. That’s why, after completing your mission, you asked the Lord of the Worlds:

اللَّهُمَّ هَلْ بَلَّغْتُ اللَّهُمَّ هَلْ بَلَّغْتُO Allah! Have I conveyed the message? O Allah! Have I conveyed the message?” (Sahih al-Bukhari: 1739, Sahih Muslim: 1679)

On the occasion of the Farewell Sermon, another significant aspect was that the Prophet Muhammad, (ﷺ), entrusted the responsibility of conveying this religion to the ears of those present. This is also evidence that now my task is completed, and your task has begun. Thus, you placed the responsibility of spreading this religion on the shoulders of the scholars, saying:

فَلْيُبْلِعْ الشَّاهِدُ الغَائِبَ

Let those who are present convey this message to those who are absent. (Sahih al-Bukhari: 1739)

Disease and Its Nature

On the 11th of Safar, 29th Hijri, which was a Monday, the Prophet Muhammad, (ﷺ), attended a funeral at Baqi’. On his way back, he began to experience a severe headache, and his temperature rose so high that the bandage wrapped around his head could be felt. This marked the onset of the illness that would eventually lead to his passing. Despite his illness, he continued to lead prayers for eleven days. The total duration of his illness was either 13 or 14 days. (Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum: 624)

The statement of the Prophet’s uncle, Abbas (رضي الله عنه), about the Prophet’s illness:

After finishing the treatment of the Prophet Muhammad, (ﷺ), Ali (رضي الله عنه) came out. The companions asked him, “Abu al-Hasan (Ali), how is the health of the Noble Prophet, (ﷺ)?” Ali replied, “Praise be to Allah, he has recovered from the pain.” Then, the Prophet’s uncle, Abbas (رضي الله عنه), held Ali’s hand and said:

وَإِنِّي وَاللهِ لَأَرى رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ سَوْفَ يُتَوَفَّى مِنْ وَجَعِهِ هَذَا، إِنِّي الأعْرِفُ وُجُوهٌ بَنِي عَبْدِ المُطَّلِبِ عِنْدَ الْمَوْتِ

I swear by Allah, the signs that I am observing indicate that the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, will not recover from this illness. At the time of death, I can recognize the faces of Banu Abd al-Muttalib.” (Sahih al-Bukhari: 4447)

Seeking refuge in the illness by reciting Mu’awwidhat:

حَدَّثَنِي حِبَّانُ، أَخْبَرَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ، أَخْبَرَنَا يُونُسُ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، قَالَ أَخْبَرَنِي عُرْوَةُ، أَنَّ عَائِشَةَ ـ رضى الله عنها ـ أَخْبَرَتْهُ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم كَانَ إِذَا اشْتَكَى نَفَثَ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ بِالْمُعَوِّذَاتِ وَمَسَحَ عَنْهُ بِيَدِهِ فَلَمَّا اشْتَكَى وَجَعَهُ الَّذِي تُوُفِّيَ فِيهِ طَفِقْتُ أَنْفِثُ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ بِالْمُعَوِّذَاتِ، الَّتِي كَانَ يَنْفِثُ، وَأَمْسَحُ بِيَدِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم عَنْهُ‏.‏

Narrated Aisha: Whenever Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) became ill, he used to recite the Muawidhatan (i.e. the last two surahs of the Qur’an) and blow his breath over himself (after their recitation ) and rubbed his hands over his body. So when he was afflicted with his fatal illness. I started reciting the Muawidhatan and blowing my breath over him as he used to do and then I rubbed the hand of the Prophet (ﷺ) over his body. (Sahih al-Bukhari 4439)

Desire to Stay at Aisha’s House

Aisha (رضي الله عنها) narrated that the health of the Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) was deteriorating day by day. During this time, he would often ask his wives, “Where will I be tomorrow? Where will I be tomorrow?” His wives understood the implication of these questions, and so they gave him permission to choose where he wanted to stay. After that, he moved to the house of Aisha.

At the time of his move, Fadl bin Abbas and Ali bin Abi Talib were helping him, and his head was bandaged. He was walking with support and dragging his feet. In this condition, he went to stay at Aisha’s house and spent the last week of his life there. (Sahih al-Bukhari: 442)

Four Days Before Passing

On a Thursday, the Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) was in severe pain, and on that day, he gave three instructions. Firstly, he instructed to expel the Jews, Christians, and polytheists from the Arabian Peninsula. Secondly, he advised treating the envoys as he had treated them. However, the third instruction was either forgotten by the narrator or related to holding firmly onto the Quran and Sunnah, or to appointing Osama bin Laden as a leader. (Sahih al-Bukhari: 4429)

Nevertheless, despite the severity of his illness, he continued leading the prayers until four days before his passing, on that Thursday. Even on that day, he led the Maghrib prayer and recited Surah Al-Mursalat.

عَن عبيد الله بن عبد الله بن عتبَة قَالَ: دَخَلْتُ عَلَى عَائِشَةَ فَقُلْتُ أَلَا تُحَدِّثِينِي عَنْ مَرَضِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَتْ بَلَى ثَقُلَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسلم فَقَالَ: «أصلى النَّاس؟» قُلْنَا لَا يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ وَهُمْ يَنْتَظِرُونَكَ فَقَالَ: «ضَعُوا لِي مَاءً فِي الْمِخْضَبِ» قَالَتْ فَفَعَلْنَا فَاغْتَسَلَ فَذَهَبَ لِيَنُوءَ فَأُغْمِيَ عَلَيْهِ ثُمَّ أَفَاقَ فَقَالَ صلى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسلم: «أَصَلَّى النَّاسُ؟» قُلْنَا لَا هُمْ يَنْتَظِرُونَكَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ قَالَ: «ضَعُوا لِي مَاءً فِي الْمِخْضَبِ» قَالَتْ فَقَعَدَ فَاغْتَسَلَ ثُمَّ ذَهَبَ لِيَنُوءَ فَأُغْمِيَ عَلَيْهِ ثُمَّ أَفَاقَ فَقَالَ: «أَصَلَّى النَّاسُ؟» قُلْنَا لَا هُمْ يَنْتَظِرُونَكَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ فَقَالَ: «ضَعُوا لِي مَاءً فِي الْمِخْضَبِ» فَقَعَدَ فَاغْتَسَلَ ثُمَّ ذَهَبَ لِيَنُوءَ فَأُغْمِيَ عَلَيْهِ ثُمَّ أَفَاقَ فَقَالَ: «أَصَلَّى النَّاسُ» . قُلْنَا لَا هُمْ يَنْتَظِرُونَكَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ وَالنَّاسُ عُكُوفٌ فِي الْمَسْجِدِ يَنْتَظِرُونَ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ لِصَلَاةِ الْعِشَاءِ الْآخِرَةِ. فَأَرْسَلَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ إِلَى أَبِي بَكْرٍ بِأَنْ يُصَلِّيَ بِالنَّاسِ فَأَتَاهُ الرَّسُولُ فَقَالَ إِنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَأْمُرُكَ أَنْ تُصَلِّيَ بِالنَّاسِ فَقَالَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ وَكَانَ رَجُلًا رَقِيقًا يَا عُمَرُ صَلِّ بِالنَّاسِ فَقَالَ لَهُ عُمَرُ أَنْتَ أَحَقُّ بِذَلِكَ فَصَلَّى أَبُو بَكْرٍ تِلْكَ الْأَيَّامَ ثُمَّ إِنَّ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وجد من نَفْسِهِ خِفَّةً وَخَرَجَ بَيْنَ رَجُلَيْنِ أَحَدُهُمَا الْعَبَّاسُ لِصَلَاةِ الظُّهْرِ وَأَبُو بَكْرٍ يُصَلِّي بِالنَّاسِ فَلَمَّا رَآهُ أَبُو بَكْرٍ ذَهَبَ لِيَتَأَخَّرَ فَأَوْمَأَ إِلَيْهِ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ بِأَنْ لَا يَتَأَخَّرَ قَالَ: «أَجْلِسَانِي إِلَى جَنْبِهِ» فَأَجْلَسَاهُ إِلَى جَنْبِ أَبِي بَكْرٍ وَالنَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسلم قَاعد. قَالَ عُبَيْدُ اللَّهِ: فَدَخَلْتُ عَلَى عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَبَّاسٍ فَقُلْتُ لَهُ أَلَا أَعْرِضُ عَلَيْكَ مَا حَدَّثتنِي بِهِ عَائِشَةُ عَنْ مَرَضِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ؟ قَالَ هَاتِ فَعَرَضْتُ عَلَيْهِ حَدِيثَهَا فَمَا أَنْكَرَ مِنْهُ شَيْئًا غَيْرَ أَنَّهُ قَالَ أَسَمَّتْ لَكَ الرَّجُلَ الَّذِي كَانَ مَعَ الْعَبَّاسِ قلت لَا قَالَ هُوَ عَليّ رَضِي الله عَنهُ

‘Ubaidallah b. ‘Abdallah said he visited ‘A’isha and asked her to tell him about the illness of God’s Messenger. She agreed and said: The Prophet was seriously ill, and he asked whether the people had prayed. When I told him that they had not, but were waiting for him, he asked me to put some water for him in the tub, and I did so. He bathed, and when he was about to rise with difficulty he fainted. When he came round he asked if the people had prayed, and when I told him that they had not, but were waiting for him, he told me to put some water for him in the tub and sat down and bathed, but when he was about to rise with difficulty he fainted. On coming round he asked whether the people had prayed, and when I told him they had not, but were waiting for him, he asked me to put some water for him in the tub and sat down and bathed, but when he was about to rise with difficulty he fainted. When he came round he asked whether the people had prayed and I told him they had not, but were waiting for him. The people were staying in the mosque waiting for the Prophet for the last evening prayer, so the Prophet sent instructions to Abu Bakr to lead the people in the prayer. When the Messenger came to him and told him God’s Messenger was ordering him to lead the people in the prayer, Abu Bakr, who was a sensitive man, told ‘Umar to lead the people, but when ‘Umar replied, “You are more entitled to that,” Abu Bakr led the prayers during those days. Afterwards the Prophet experienced some improvement in his condition and went out between two men, one of whom was al-‘Abbas, to the noon prayer when Abu Bakr was leading the people. When Abu Bakr saw him he began to withdraw, but the Prophet signed to him not to do so. He told his two companions to set him down beside Abu Bakr, and they did so and he remained seated. ‘Ubaidallah said that he visited ‘Abdallah b. ‘Abbas and asked if he might submit to him what ‘A’isha had told him about the illness of God’s Messenger, and he said, “Go ahead.” He submitted to him what she had told and he objected to none of it, only asking whether she had named to him the man who accompanied al- ‘Abbas. When he replied that she had not, he said that he was ‘Ali. (Mishkat al-Masabih 1147)

Three Days Before the Passing

Sa’idna Jabir bin Abdullah (رضي الله عنه) narrated, “I heard that the Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) was saying three days before his passing:

وَعَنْ جَابِرٍ قَالَ: سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَبْلَ مَوْتِهِ بِثَلَاثَةِ أَيَّامٍ يَقُولُ: «لَا يَمُوتَنَّ أَحَدُكُمْ إِلَّا وَهُوَ يُحْسِنُ الظَّنَّ بِاللَّه» . رَوَاهُ مُسلم

Jabir said he heard God’s messenger say three days before his death, “See that none of you dies without having good expectations from God.” (Mishkat al-Masabih 1605)

One Day or Two Days Before Passing

On a Sunday or Monday, the Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) felt some relief in his condition. At that time, two men, Abbas and Ali (رضي الله عنه), supported him and brought him to the mosque to perform the Dhuhr prayer. Aisha (ﷺ) mentioned that one day, the Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) felt slightly better, and he went to the mosque for the Dhuhr prayer. Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) was leading the prayer, and when he saw the Prophet, he tried to step back, but the Prophet indicated for him to remain in his place.

فَجَلَسَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ حِذَاءَ أَبِي بَكْرٍ إِلَى جَنْبِهِ ، فَكَانَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ يُصَلِّي بِصَلَاةٍ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَالنَّاسُ يُصَلُّونَ بِصَلَاةِ أَبِي بَكْرٍ پس

The Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) sat on the arm of Abu Bakr Siddiq (ﷺ). (Sahih al-Bukhari: 683)

The Last Day of the Blessed Life

The Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) did not come out of his house for three days during his illness. It was during these days that one morning, the Fajr prayer was being held, and Abu Bakr was about to lead the prayer when the Prophet (ﷺ) lifted the curtain of his room. (Sahih al-Bukhari)

حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو مَعْمَرٍ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الْوَارِثِ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الْعَزِيزِ، عَنْ أَنَسٍ، قَالَ لَمْ يَخْرُجِ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ثَلاَثًا، فَأُقِيمَتِ الصَّلاَةُ، فَذَهَبَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ يَتَقَدَّمُ فَقَالَ نَبِيُّ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم بِالْحِجَابِ فَرَفَعَهُ، فَلَمَّا وَضَحَ وَجْهُ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم مَا نَظَرْنَا مَنْظَرًا كَانَ أَعْجَبَ إِلَيْنَا مِنْ وَجْهِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم حِينَ وَضَحَ لَنَا، فَأَوْمَأَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم بِيَدِهِ إِلَى أَبِي بَكْرٍ أَنْ يَتَقَدَّمَ، وَأَرْخَى النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم الْحِجَابَ، فَلَمْ يُقْدَرْ عَلَيْهِ حَتَّى مَاتَ‏.‏

Narrated Anas: The Prophet (ﷺ) did not come out for three days. The people stood for the prayer and Abu Bakr went ahead to lead the prayer. (In the meantime) the Prophet (ﷺ) caught hold of the curtain and lifted it. When the face of the Prophet (ﷺ) appeared we had never seen a scene more pleasing than the face of the Prophet (ﷺ) as it appeared then. The Prophet (ﷺ) beckoned to Abu Bakr to lead the people in the prayer and then let the curtain fall. We did not see him (again) till he died. (Sahih al-Bukhari 681)

On that day, the Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) summoned his daughter Fatimah (رضي الله عنها) and whispered something in her ear. Aisha (رضي الله عنها) later mentioned:

حَدَّثَنَا مَنْصُورُ بْنُ أَبِي مُزَاحِمٍ، حَدَّثَنَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ، – يَعْنِي ابْنَ سَعْدٍ – عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ عُرْوَةَ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، ح
وَحَدَّثَنِي زُهَيْرُ بْنُ حَرْبٍ، – وَاللَّفْظُ لَهُ – حَدَّثَنَا يَعْقُوبُ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبِي، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، أَنَّ عُرْوَةَ بْنَ الزُّبَيْرِ، حَدَّثَهُ أَنَّ عَائِشَةَ حَدَّثَتْهُ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم دَعَا فَاطِمَةَ ابْنَتَهُ فَسَارَّهَا فَبَكَتْ ثُمَّ سَارَّهَا فَضَحِكَتْ فَقَالَتْ عَائِشَةُ فَقُلْتُ لِفَاطِمَةَ مَا هَذَا الَّذِي سَارَّكِ بِهِ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَبَكَيْتِ ثُمَّ سَارَّكِ فَضَحِكْتِ قَالَتْ سَارَّنِي فَأَخْبَرَنِي بِمَوْتِهِ فَبَكَيْتُ ثُمَّ سَارَّنِي فَأَخْبَرَنِي أَنِّي أَوَّلُ مَنْ يَتْبَعُهُ مِنْ أَهْلِهِ فَضَحِكْتُ ‏.‏

‘A’isha reported that Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) called his daughter Fatima (during his last illness). He said. to her something secretly and she wept. He again said to her something secretly and she laughed. ‘A’isha further reported that she said to Fatima: What is that which Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said to you secretly and you wept and then said to you something secretly and you laughed? Thereupon she said: He informed me secretly of his death and so I wept. He then again informed me secretly that I would be the first amongst the members of his family to follow him and so I laughed. (Sahih Muslim 2450a)

All the slaves were freed on that day

On the same day, the Noble Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, emancipated all his slaves and gave them gifts of about six or seven dinars each. (Tabaqat Ibn Saad 2/237)

Intense Hardship and Fatimah’s Distress

At that time, the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, was suffering from severe distress. Upon seeing this, Hazrat Fatimah cried out in anguish.

حَدَّثَنَا سُلَيْمَانُ بْنُ حَرْبٍ، حَدَّثَنَا حَمَّادٌ، عَنْ ثَابِتٍ، عَنْ أَنَسٍ، قَالَ لَمَّا ثَقُلَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم جَعَلَ يَتَغَشَّاهُ، فَقَالَتْ فَاطِمَةُ ـ عَلَيْهَا السَّلاَمُ ـ وَاكَرْبَ أَبَاهُ‏.‏ فَقَالَ لَهَا ‏ “‏ لَيْسَ عَلَى أَبِيكِ كَرْبٌ بَعْدَ الْيَوْمِ ‏”‏‏.‏ فَلَمَّا مَاتَ قَالَتْ يَا أَبَتَاهْ، أَجَابَ رَبًّا دَعَاهُ، يَا أَبَتَاهْ مَنْ جَنَّةُ الْفِرْدَوْسِ مَأْوَاهُ، يَا أَبَتَاهْ إِلَى جِبْرِيلَ نَنْعَاهْ‏.‏ فَلَمَّا دُفِنَ قَالَتْ فَاطِمَةُ ـ عَلَيْهَا السَّلاَمُ ـ يَا أَنَسُ، أَطَابَتْ أَنْفُسُكُمْ أَنْ تَحْثُوا عَلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم التُّرَابَ

Narrated Anas: When the ailment of the Prophet (ﷺ) got aggravated, he became unconscious whereupon Fatima said, “Oh, how distressed my father is!” He said, “Your father will have no more distress after today.” When he expired, she said, “O Father! Who has responded to the call of the Lord Who has invited him! O Father, whose dwelling place is the Garden of Paradise (i.e. Al-Firdaus)! O Father! We convey this news (of your death) to Gabriel.” When he was buried, Fatima said, “O Anas! Do you feel pleased to throw earth over Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ)?” (Sahih al-Bukhari)

The pain of the poison from Khaybar

Your pain was increasing, and the effects of the poison were starting to show, which you had consumed in Khaybar. You would often say to Sayyida Aisha (رضي الله عنها):

وَقَالَ يُونُسُ عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ، قَالَ عُرْوَةُ قَالَتْ عَائِشَةُ ـ رضى الله عنها ـ كَانَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ فِي مَرَضِهِ الَّذِي مَاتَ فِيهِ ‏ “‏ يَا عَائِشَةُ مَا أَزَالُ أَجِدُ أَلَمَ الطَّعَامِ الَّذِي أَكَلْتُ بِخَيْبَرَ، فَهَذَا أَوَانُ وَجَدْتُ انْقِطَاعَ أَبْهَرِي مِنْ ذَلِكَ السَّمِّ ‏”‏‏.‏

Narrated `Aisha: The Prophet (ﷺ) in his ailment in which he died, used to say, “O `Aisha! I still feel the pain caused by the food I ate at Khaibar, and at this time, I feel as if my aorta is being cut from that poison.” (Sahih al-Bukhari)

Severe pain and curse upon the Jews and Christians

At times, due to the severe pain The Prophet (ﷺ), would cover his face with a cloth, and at other times, he would remove it. He would repeatedly place the cloth on his face when the pain intensified, and then when it subsided, he would remove it. In the midst of this intensity, he (ﷺ) would say:

وَعَنْ عَائِشَةَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهَا أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ فِي مَرَضِهِ الَّذِي لَمْ يَقُمْ مِنْهُ: «لَعَنَ اللَّهُ الْيَهُودَ وَالنَّصَارَى اتَّخَذُوا قُبُورَ أَنْبِيَائِهِمْ مَسَاجِد»

‘A’isha told of God’s Messenger as saying in his illness from which he did not recover, “God curse the Jews and Christians! They have taken the graves of their prophets as mosques.”
(Bukhari and Muslim.)

The recitation of ‘La ilaha illallah

Due to the pain, you would immerse both your hands in water and then wipe your face, saying:

حَدَّثَنِي مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عُبَيْدِ بْنِ مَيْمُونٍ، حَدَّثَنَا عِيسَى بْنُ يُونُسَ، عَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ، قَالَ أَخْبَرَنِي ابْنُ أَبِي مُلَيْكَةَ، أَنَّ أَبَا عَمْرٍو، ذَكْوَانَ مَوْلَى عَائِشَةَ أَخْبَرَهُ أَنَّ عَائِشَةَ ـ رضى الله عنها ـ كَانَتْ تَقُولُ إِنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهَ صلى الله عليه وسلم كَانَ بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ رَكْوَةٌ ـ أَوْ عُلْبَةٌ فِيهَا مَاءٌ، يَشُكُّ عُمَرُ ـ فَجَعَلَ يُدْخِلُ يَدَيْهِ فِي الْمَاءِ، فَيَمْسَحُ بِهِمَا وَجْهَهُ وَيَقُولُ ‏”‏ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ، إِنَّ لِلْمَوْتِ سَكَرَاتٍ ‏”‏‏.‏ ثُمَّ نَصَبَ يَدَهُ فَجَعَلَ يَقُولُ ‏”‏ فِي الرَّفِيقِ الأَعْلَى ‏”‏‏.‏ حَتَّى قُبِضَ وَمَالَتْ يَدُهُ‏.‏
قَالَ أَبُو عَبْد اللَّهِ الْعُلْبَةُ مِنْ الْخَشَبِ وَالرَّكْوَةُ مِنْ الْأَدَمِ.

Narrated `Aisha: There was a leather or wood container full of water in front of Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) (at the time of his death). He would put his hand into the water and rub his face with it, saying, “None has the right to be worshipped but Allah! No doubt, death has its stupors.” Then he raised his hand and started saying, “(O Allah!) with the highest companions.” (4:69) (and kept on saying it) till he expired and his hand dropped.” (Sahih al-Bukhari)

Advice regarding prayer and slaves

حَدَّثَنَا زُهَيْرُ بْنُ حَرْبٍ، وَعُثْمَانُ بْنُ أَبِي شَيْبَةَ، قَالاَ حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الْفُضَيْلِ، عَنْ مُغِيرَةَ، عَنْ أُمِّ مُوسَى، عَنْ عَلِيٍّ، عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَمُ قَالَ كَانَ آخِرُ كَلاَمِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ “‏ الصَّلاَةَ الصَّلاَةَ اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ فِيمَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُكُمْ ‏”‏ ‏.‏

Narrated Ali ibn AbuTalib:
The last words which the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) spoke were: Prayer, prayer; fear Allah about those whom your right hands possess. (Sunan Abi Dawud)

Wish for the Miswak

حَدَّثَنَا إِسْمَاعِيلُ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي سُلَيْمَانُ بْنُ بِلاَلٍ، حَدَّثَنَا هِشَامُ بْنُ عُرْوَةَ، أَخْبَرَنِي أَبِي، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ ـ رضى الله عنها ـ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم كَانَ يَسْأَلُ فِي مَرَضِهِ الَّذِي مَاتَ فِيهِ يَقُولَ ‏ “‏ أَيْنَ أَنَا غَدًا أَيْنَ أَنَا غَدًا ‏”‏ يُرِيدُ يَوْمَ عَائِشَةَ، فَأَذِنَ لَهُ أَزْوَاجُهُ يَكُونُ حَيْثُ شَاءَ، فَكَانَ فِي بَيْتِ عَائِشَةَ حَتَّى مَاتَ عِنْدَهَا، قَالَتْ عَائِشَةُ فَمَاتَ فِي الْيَوْمِ الَّذِي كَانَ يَدُورُ عَلَىَّ فِيهِ فِي بَيْتِي، فَقَبَضَهُ اللَّهُ وَإِنَّ رَأْسَهُ لَبَيْنَ نَحْرِي وَسَحْرِي، وَخَالَطَ رِيقُهُ رِيقِي ـ ثُمَّ قَالَتْ ـ دَخَلَ عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنُ أَبِي بَكْرٍ وَمَعَهُ سِوَاكٌ يَسْتَنُّ بِهِ فَنَظَرَ إِلَيْهِ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقُلْتُ لَهُ أَعْطِنِي هَذَا السِّوَاكَ يَا عَبْدَ الرَّحْمَنِ‏.‏ فَأَعْطَانِيهِ فَقَضِمْتُهُ، ثُمَّ مَضَغْتُهُ فَأَعْطَيْتُهُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَاسْتَنَّ بِهِ وَهْوَ مُسْتَنِدٌ إِلَى صَدْرِي‏.‏

Narrated `Urwa: `Aisha said, “Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) in his fatal illness, used to ask, ‘Where will I be tomorrow? Where will I be tomorrow?”, seeking `Aisha’s turn. His wives allowed him to stay wherever he wished. So he stayed at `Aisha’s house till he expired while he was with her.” `Aisha added, “The Prophet (ﷺ) expired on the day of my turn in my house and he was taken unto Allah while his head was against my chest and his saliva mixed with my saliva.” `Aisha added, “Abdur-Rahman bin Abu Bakr came in, carrying a Siwak he was cleaning his teeth with. Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) looked at it and I said to him, ‘O `AbdurRahman! Give me this Siwak.’ So he gave it to me and I cut it, chewed it (it’s end) and gave it to Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) who cleaned his teeth with it while he was resting against my chest.” (Sahih al-Bukhari)

Then you graciously gave me the Miswak, and your hand lowered, or (the narrator said), the Miswak fell from your hand.

حَدَّثَنَا سُلَيْمَانُ بْنُ حَرْبٍ، حَدَّثَنَا حَمَّادُ بْنُ زَيْدٍ، عَنْ أَيُّوبَ، عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي مُلَيْكَةَ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ ـ رضى الله عنها ـ قَالَتْ تُوُفِّيَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فِي بَيْتِي وَفِي يَوْمِي، وَبَيْنَ سَحْرِي وَنَحْرِي، وَكَانَتْ إِحْدَانَا تُعَوِّذُهُ بِدُعَاءٍ إِذَا مَرِضَ، فَذَهَبْتُ أُعَوِّذُهُ، فَرَفَعَ رَأْسَهُ إِلَى السَّمَاءِ وَقَالَ ‏ “‏ فِي الرَّفِيقِ الأَعْلَى فِي الرَّفِيقِ الأَعْلَى ‏”‏‏.‏ وَمَرَّ عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنُ أَبِي بَكْرٍ وَفِي يَدِهِ جَرِيدَةٌ رَطْبَةٌ، فَنَظَرَ إِلَيْهِ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَظَنَنْتُ أَنَّ لَهُ بِهَا حَاجَةً فَأَخَذْتُهَا، فَمَضَغْتُ رَأْسَهَا وَنَفَضْتُهَا فَدَفَعْتُهَا إِلَيْهِ، فَاسْتَنَّ بِهَا كَأَحْسَنِ مَا كَانَ مُسْتَنًّا ثُمَّ نَاوَلَنِيهَا فَسَقَطَتْ يَدُهُ ـ أَوْ سَقَطَتْ مِنْ يَدِهِ ـ فَجَمَعَ اللَّهُ بَيْنَ رِيقِي وَرِيقِهِ فِي آخِرِ يَوْمٍ مِنَ الدُّنْيَا وَأَوَّلِ يَوْمٍ مِنَ الآخِرَةِ‏.‏

Narrated `Aisha: The Prophet (ﷺ) expired in my house and on the day of my turn, leaning against my chest. One of us (i.e. the Prophet’s wives ) used to recite a prayer asking Allah to protect him from all evils when he became sick. So I started asking Allah to protect him from all evils (by reciting a prayer ). He raised his head towards the sky and said, “With the highest companions, with the highest companions.” `Abdur- Rahman bin Abu Bakr passed carrying a fresh leaf-stalk of a date-palm and the Prophet (ﷺ) looked at it and I thought that the Prophet (ﷺ) was in need of it (for cleaning his teeth ). So I took it (from `Abdur Rahman) and chewed its head and shook it and gave it to the Prophet (ﷺ) who cleaned his teeth with it, in the best way he had ever cleaned his teeth, and then he gave it to me, and suddenly his hand dropped down or it fell from his hand (i.e. he expired). So Allah made my saliva mix with his saliva on his last day on earth and his first day in the Hereafter. (Sahih al-Bukhari)

Fatimah’s (رضي الله عنها) distress

وعن أنس رضي الله عنه قال‏: ‏ لما ثقل النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم جعل يتغشاه الكرب فقالت فاطمة رضي الله عنها‏: ‏ واكرب أبتاه‏.‏ فقال ‏: ‏ ‏ “‏ليس على أبيك كرب بعد اليوم‏”‏ فلما مات قالت ‏: ‏ يا أبتاه أجاب رباً دعاه، يا أبتاه جنة الفردوس مأواه، يا أبتاه إلى جبريل ننعاه، فلما دفن قالت ‏: ‏ فاطمة رضي الله عنها‏: ‏ أطابت أنفسكم أن تحثوا على رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم التراب‏؟‏ ‏(‏‏(‏رواه البخاري‏)‏‏)‏‏.‏

Anas (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: When the last illness of Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) made him unconscious, Fatimah (May Allah be pleased with her) exclaimed: “Ah, the distress of my dear father.” He (ﷺ) said, “There will be no distress for your father after today”. When he died she said: “My father, Allah has called you back and you have responded to His Call. O father! Garden of Firdaus is your abode. O father! We announce to Jibril your death.” When he was buried, she said: “Are you satisfied now that you put earth over (the grave of) Messenger of Allah (ﷺ)?” [Al- Bukhari] (Riyad as-Salihin)

Advising the people while addressing them after the demise of Abu Bakr (رضي الله عنه)

Sayyida Aisha (رضي الله عنها) said:

أن أَبا بَكْرٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ أَقْبَلَ عَلَى فَرَسٍ مِنْ مَسْكَنِهِ بِالسُّنْحِ، حَتَّى نَزَلَ فَدَخَلَ المَسْجِدَ، فَلَمْ يُكَلِّمُ النَّاسَ حَتَّى دَخَلَ عَلَى عَائِشَةَ، فَتَيَهُمَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَهُوَ مُغَتَّى بِثَوْبٍ حِبَرَةٍ، فَكَشَفَ عَنْ وَجْهِهِ ثُمَّ أَكَبْ عَلَيْهِ فَقَبْلَهُ وَبَكَى

When the Prophet (ﷺ) passed away, Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, brought his horse to the mosque from his house. He dismounted from the horse and entered the mosque without speaking to anyone. Instead, he went directly to Lady Aisha’s quarters and inquired about the Prophet’s whereabouts. At that moment, you (Aisha) were covered with a Yemeni shawl. Abu Bakr uncovered your face, leaned down to kiss the Prophet, and then stepped back, weeping.

He said:

بِأَبِي أَنْتَ وَأُمِّي، وَاللَّهِ لَا يَجْمَعُ اللَّهُ عَلَيْكَ مَوْتَتَيْنِ أَمَّا المَوْتَةُ الَّتِي كُتِبَتْ عَلَيْكَ، فَقَدْ منها

“My mother and father be sacrificed for you, O Messenger of Allah! Allah will not combine two deaths for you. The death that was written for you has indeed occurred.” – Sahih al-Bukhari 4457

Abu Salama said, ‘I was informed by Ibn Abbas (رضي الله عنه):

أَنَّ أَبَا بَكْرٍ خَرَجَ وَعُمَرُ بْنُ الخَطَّابِ يُكَلِّمُ النَّاسَ فَقَالَ : اجْلِسَ يَا عُمَرُ، فَأَبَى عُمَرُ أن يجلس، فَأَقْبَلَ النَّاسُ إِلَيْهِ، وَتَرَكُوا عُمر

When Abu Bakr, (رضي الله عنه), came out, I was the first to approach him, and he was engaged in talking to the people. He said, ‘Sit down.’ They did not obey him. Then he said, ‘Sit down,’ but they still did not obey him. Abu Bakr then recited a sermon, and now people turned their attention towards him, and Umar left them. Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him,

then said:

أَمَّا بَعْدُ فَمَنْ كَانَ مِنْكُمْ يَعْبُدُ مُحَمَّدًا صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، فَإِنَّ مُحَمَّدًا قَدْ مَاتَ، وَمَنْ كَانَ مِنْكُمْ يَعْبُدُ اللهَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ حَي لا يموتُ، قَالَ اللهُ: (وَمَا مُحَمَّدٌ إِلَّا رَسُولٌ قَدْ خَلَتْ مِنْ قَبْلِهِ الرُّسُلُ إِلَى قَوْلِهِ الشَّاكِرِينَ)

After this, whoever among you used to worship Muhammad, (ﷺ), let it be known that Muhammad has indeed passed away, but whoever used to worship Allah, let it be known that Allah is alive and will never die. Allah the Exalted has said: ‘Muhammad is not but a messenger. [Other] messengers have passed on before him.’ (Quran, Surah Al-3Imran, 3:144).”

Ibn Abbas  (رضي الله عنه) said:

وَاللَّهِ لَكَأَنَّ النَّاسَ لَمْ يَعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ أَنزَلَ هَذِهِ الآيَةَ حَتَّى تَلَاهَا أَبُو بَكْرٍ، فَتَلَقَّاهَا مِنْهُ النَّاسُ كُلُّهُمْ، فَمَا أَسْمَعُ بَشَرًا مِنَ النَّاسِ إِلَّا يَتْلُوهَا

“I swear by Allah, it seemed as if people did not even know that Allah the Exalted had revealed this verse until Abu Bakr read it, and when people heard it from him, the same verse was being recited by those who had heard it.” – Sahih al-Bukhari 4452

The condition of all the people of Madinah

لَمَّا كَانَ اليَوْمُ الَّذِي دَخَلَ فِيهِ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ المَدِينَةَ أَضَاءَ مِنْهَا كل شيء، فاذا كان اليوم الذي مات فيه أعلام مِنْهَا كُلَّ شَيْءٍ،

“When the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, first entered Madinah, everything became illuminated by his presence. But when the day came on which he passed away, everything became darkened.” – Sunan at-Tirmidhi 3618, Al-Albani: Sahih

The impact of Umm Aiman (رضي الله عنها)

قَالَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُ، بَعْدَ وَفَاةِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ لِعُمَرَ: انطلق بنا إلى أم أيمن نزورها، كما كان رسول الله صلى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم يَرُورُها فلذا انتهينا إليها بكت فقالا لها، ما يُبكيك ما عند الله خير لرسوله صلى الله عليه وسلم فقالت: ما أبكي أن لا أكون أمام أن ما عند الله خير السواء على الله عليه وسلم، ولكن أبي أن الوحي قد انقطع من الشباب فيمكننا على البكاء فعلا للكيان معها

“After your passing, Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, said to Umar, ‘Let’s go meet Umm Aiman, just as the Messenger of Allah, (ﷺ), used to visit her.’ When we reached her, she began to cry. Both companions asked her, ‘Why are you crying? What Allah has prepared for the Messenger of Allah is far better than everything in this world.’ Umm Aiman replied, ‘I am not crying because I am unaware of that, but I am crying because the revelation from the heavens has come to an end.’ Her words made Abu Bakr and Umar, may Allah be pleased with them, cry as well.” – Sahih Muslim 6318

Aisha’s (رضي الله عنها) statement after the burial

حَدَّثَنَا سُلَيْمَانُ بْنُ حَرْبٍ، حَدَّثَنَا حَمَّادٌ، عَنْ ثَابِتٍ، عَنْ أَنَسٍ، قَالَ لَمَّا ثَقُلَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم جَعَلَ يَتَغَشَّاهُ، فَقَالَتْ فَاطِمَةُ ـ عَلَيْهَا السَّلاَمُ ـ وَاكَرْبَ أَبَاهُ‏.‏ فَقَالَ لَهَا ‏ “‏ لَيْسَ عَلَى أَبِيكِ كَرْبٌ بَعْدَ الْيَوْمِ ‏”‏‏.‏ فَلَمَّا مَاتَ قَالَتْ يَا أَبَتَاهْ، أَجَابَ رَبًّا دَعَاهُ، يَا أَبَتَاهْ مَنْ جَنَّةُ الْفِرْدَوْسِ مَأْوَاهُ، يَا أَبَتَاهْ إِلَى جِبْرِيلَ نَنْعَاهْ‏.‏ فَلَمَّا دُفِنَ قَالَتْ فَاطِمَةُ ـ عَلَيْهَا السَّلاَمُ ـ يَا أَنَسُ، أَطَابَتْ أَنْفُسُكُمْ أَنْ تَحْثُوا عَلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم التُّرَابَ

Narrated Anas: When the ailment of the Prophet (ﷺ) got aggravated, he became unconscious whereupon Fatima said, “Oh, how distressed my father is!” He said, “Your father will have no more distress after today.” When he expired, she said, “O Father! Who has responded to the call of the Lord Who has invited him! O Father, whose dwelling place is the Garden of Paradise (i.e. Al-Firdaus)! O Father! We convey this news (of your death) to Gabriel.” When he was buried, Fatima said, “O Anas! Do you feel pleased to throw earth over Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ)?” (Sahih al-Bukhari)

نبی کریم صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم کی وفات

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Umme Muhammad

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