The top ten differences between the Uthmanic and IndoPak scripts
Uthmanic script: Its Origin and History
The Uthmanic Script of the Holy Qur’an has its origin in the period of the caliphate. It is believed that the Holy Qur’an was transmitted to the Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) in the seven Ahruf in order to include the various Arab tribes, as opposed to their dialectal locality. The majority of the companions learned about the Holy Qur’an by heart as it was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) by Jibrail (عليه السلام), the arch-angel. The group of companions did not only study the Qur’an from memory during the Prophet’s (عليه السلام) time, but they also wrote it using various types of materials like bones, stones, leaves, skin, etc.
The Prophet’s (عليه السلام) death occurred in the year 11 A.H. (632 A.D.); every part from the Holy Qur’an was preserved, in writing as well as in the memory of his companions, in the same sequence of Ayat as well as Surah of the Holy Qur’an in the manner that revealed on the Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ).
Later, Hazrat Zaid Bin Sabit (رضي الله عنه) compiled all the parts of the Holy Quran in the form of a written complied text according to the way instructed by the caliph who was first, Hazrat Abu Bakr (رضي الله عنه). The first compiled text was called Al Jamul Awwal, and then after the Second Caliph Umar (رضي الله عنه), it was handed over to the Ummul-Mumineen Hazrat Hafsa Bin Umar (رضي الله عنهما). Unsurprisingly, other versions, such as Mushaf Ubai Ibn Ka’b and Mus-haf Ibn Masud, were also available at the time.
In the 25th year of A.H. (646 A.D.), the third caliph Usman (رضي الله عنه), ordered Zaid bin Sabit (رضي الله عنه) as well as three companions Abdullah bin Zubair, Saad, and Abdur Rahman bin Harith bin Hashim (رضي الله عنهم) to make one standard, authentic and reliable copy of the original written version of the Holy Qur’an possessed by Hafsa (رضي الله عنها). In order to accomplish this, Usman (رضي الله عنه) took the first version of the Holy Qur’an from Hafsa (رضي الله عنها) to create an authentic copy.
After Zaid (رضي الله عنه) had completed his duty, the Mus-haf that contained Hafsa bin Umar (رضي الله عنها) was handed back to her. The script, which was referred to as Uthmani script or Uthman’s script, was kept by Caliph Uthman and himself inside Madina.
The caliph Usman sent copies of this authoritative and standard version to various Muslim countries and the following famous reciters to explain the Holy Qur’an.
1.) Zaid bin Thabit (رضي الله عنه) was the one who received The Mus-haf al Madinah,
2.) Abdullah (رضي الله عنه) was the recipient of Mus-haf Makkah.
3.) Al Mugirah (رضي الله عنه) was the person who received Mus-haf Ashsham.
4.) Abu Abdur Rahman (رضي الله عنه) was the recipient of Mus-haf Al Kufah.
5.) The Amir bin Qais (رضي الله عنه) is the recipient of the Mus-haf Al Basrah.
The IndoPak Script is also known as Al-Majeedi Script or South Asian Script. This script is very popular in South Asia or Sub-Continent. The origin of this script is south Asia, and it is easy for the Persian and Urdu speaking.
Top ten differences
Alif Saghirah, Ya Saghirah vs. Kharha zabar, Khari zer
In Uthmanic Script, there is Alif saghihra, Waw Saghihra and Ya Saghirah to elongate fat-ha, dammah and kasrah, respectively. While in IndoPak Scripts, there is Kharha Zabar, Kharhri Zer and Ulta pesh to elongate letters.
Use of Hamzatul Wasl vs. Alif with A’raab
In Uthmanic Script, there is use of Hamzatul Wasl, and the reciter needs to know that, when a word starts from hamzatul Wasl. He needs to keep remember the rule,
If there is laam right after Hamzatul Wasl then he has to read Fat-ha on it.
If there is no laam right after Hamzatul Wasl then he has to see the third letter (1st letter = Hamzatul Wasl | 2nd letter = sakina letter right after the Hamzatul Wasl | 3rd will be the next one ),
- Read Kasra, when the 3rd letter has fat-ha or kasra.
- Read Damma, when the 3rd letter has Damma.
While in IndoPak Script, there is Alif with Harakaat.
Example of noon Qutni:
In Uthmanic Script, we have to keep remember the rule for noon Qutni; (Row 2)
Whenever there is Hanzatul Wasl, right after Tanween ( ً ٍ ٌ) , then we have to change Tanween to Harakaat ( َ ِ ُ), and we have to add a noon maksoorah.
While in IndoPak Script, there will be noon Qutni. (Row 1)
No Shadd for idgham vs. shadd for idgham
In Uthmanic Script, there is no Shaddah for Idgham, merging sound of noon with either Waw or Ya, while in IndoPak Script, there is Shaddah on Idgham.
How Tanween looks, when there is Ikhfaa/Idgham vs. No difference on Tanween.
In Uthmanic Script, there is distorted tanween on ikhfaa/idgham, while in IndoPak Script, there is same tanween, means parallel.
Different shape of madd
In Uthmanic Script, there is one shape of the madd only or you can say it follow the Qir’at, by Hafs ‘an ‘Asim in the way of Shatbiyyah, while in IndoPak Script, there are two different shapes of madds, for both Madde Muttasil (long madd), and Munfasil (short madd) or you can say it follow the Qir’at, by Hafs ‘an ‘Asim in the way of Tayyibah.
How iqlab looks like in both of the scripts
In Uthmanic Script, there is harakat with meem, while in IndoPak Script, there is tanween with meem.
Focus on Surahs vs. Focus on Juz
Uthmanic Script focuses on Surahs and Ahzaab, while IndoPak Script focuses on Juzz, juzz name like Amma, Tabarakallazi for 30 and 29 juz, respectively.
Division like Hizb vs. Ruba, nisf, salasa ruba
In Uthmanic Script, there are 30 Juz and Sixty Ahzaab, means that each Hizb is dividing a juz in two parts (half), while in IndoPak Script, there is Nisf, Ruba and Salasa Ruba, that are dividing a Juz into four further parts, like a quarter, half and one-third, respectively.
Further devision like maqras vs. ruku
In Uthmanic Script, the Hizb (group) is divided into four quarters, resulting in eight quarters for each Juz’, called maqra’. There are 240″quarters ( maqra’s) in the Qur’an. These maqra’s are frequently utilized as practical sections for revision in memorizing the Qur’an. While in IndoPak Script, there is a topic division known as Ruku. The term”ruku’ “roughly translated into “passage,” “pericope,” or “stanza” – is also used to indicate an entire set of thematically connected verses from the Quran. The longer chapters (surah) in the Qur’an are typically separated into several ruku’s so readers can determine when it is appropriate to use ruku in Salah while maintaining the flow of a topic within the Quranic text. The Qur’an has 558 Ruku’s within the Qur’an.
Different Punctuation signs
In Uthmanic Script, there are 10 signs, while in IndoPak Script, there are 15 punctuation signs.
It does not matter, which script you are going to use, to learn the recitation of the holy Qur’an but it does matter, which script you have used to learn the recitation of the Holy Qur’an. You can make mistakes when switching between these two different scripts, without knowing the differences.
For example: People do read the Word “Salah” as “Salawah” in Uthmani script when they switch from IndoPak to Uthmanic Script.
I hope this article helps you to know the difference between both of the scripts, before switching to any of these. To know more about it, Book Class Now! We offer a free trial class.