Conditions and Threshold for the Obligation of Sacrifice9 min read

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Conditions and Threshold for the Obligation of Sacrifice

Conditions and Requirements for the Obligation of Sacrifice

Conditions for the Obligation of Sacrifice:

It should be clear that the Shariah does not make the act of sacrifice obligatory upon every Muslim. Rather, there are specific conditions that must be fulfilled for the obligation of sacrifice. The following conditions are mentioned:

1. Being a Muslim

It is necessary to be a believer (Muslim) for the obligation of sacrifice. It is evident that non-Muslims’ sacrifice is not accepted due to the absence of faith. The fundamental condition for the acceptance of actions is belief.

2. Attaining Puberty

For the obligation of sacrifice, one must have reached the age of puberty. Only a pubescent person can fulfill the obligation of sacrifice, even if they possess the minimum threshold (nisab) of wealth. This is the predominant opinion among scholars, although some scholars hold that if an immature person possesses the minimum threshold, their sacrifice is obligatory. However, this opinion is not dominant.

3. Being Mentally Capable

Being mentally capable is necessary for the obligation of sacrifice. A mentally deranged person is not obliged to sacrifice, even if they possess the minimum threshold.

4. Being a Resident

Being a resident is necessary for the obligation of sacrifice. A traveler is not obliged to sacrifice, even if they possess the minimum threshold.

Issue

If a traveler becomes a resident during the three days of sacrifice and also possesses the minimum threshold, they are obliged to offer the sacrifice. Similarly, if a resident who possesses the minimum threshold becomes a traveler during the days of sacrifice, they are no longer obliged to sacrifice. If such a situation occurs and the person had already purchased an animal, it is correct for them to sell the animal and utilize the proceeds for personal use.

5. Possessing the Minimum Threshold

For the obligation of sacrifice, it is necessary to possess the minimum threshold (nisab). Those who do not possess the minimum threshold are not obligated to sacrifice.

Summary

Sacrifice is obligatory for every Muslim who is mentally capable, has reached puberty, is a resident, and possesses the minimum threshold, regardless of gender.
(Radd al-Muhtar)

Issue

If a traveler or a person who does not possess the minimum threshold willingly desires to offer a voluntary sacrifice, it is permissible. (Radd al-Muhtar)

The following is stated in Al-Durr al-Mukhtar:

وَشَرْعًا: (ذَبْحُ حَيَوَانٍ مَخْصُوصٍ بِنِيَّةِ الْقُرْبَةِ فِي وَقْتٍ مَخْصُوصٍ. وَشَرَائِطُهَا: الْإِسْلَامُ وَالْإِقَامَةُ وَالْيَسَارُ الَّذِي يَتَعَلَّقُ بِهِ) وُجُوبُ (صَدَقَةِ الْفِطْرِ) كَمَا مَرَّ (لَا الذُّكُورَةُ فَتَجِبُ عَلَى الْأُنْثَى) «خَانِيَّةٌ» …. (فَتَجِبُ) التَّضْحِيَةُ: أَيْ إرَاقَةُ الدَّمِ مِن النَّعَمِ عَمَلًا لَا اعْتِقَادًا بِقُدْرَةٍ مُمْكِنَةٍ …. (عَلَى حُرٍّ مُسْلِمٍ مُقِيمٍ) بِمِصْرٍ أَوْ قَرْيَةٍ أَوْ بَادِيَةٍ، «عَيْنِيٌّ»، فَلَا تَجِبُ عَلَى حَاجٍّ مُسَافِرٍ، فَأَمَّا أَهْلُ مَكَّةَ فَتَلْزَمُهُمْ وَإِنْ حَجُّوا، وَقِيلَ: لَا تَلْزَمُ الْمُحْرِمَ، «سِرَاجٌ». (مُوسِرٌ) يَسَارَ الْفِطْرَةِ (عَنْ نَفْسِهِ، لَا عَنْ طِفْلِهِ) عَلَى الظَّاهِرِ، بِخِلَافِ الْفِطْرَةِ (شَاةٌ) بِالرَّفْعِ بَدَلٌ مِنْ ضَمِيرِ «تَجِبُ» أَوْ فَاعِلِهِ (أَوْ سُبْعُ بَدَنَةٍ) هِيَ الْإِبِلُ وَالْبَقَرُ، سُمِّيَتْ بِهِ؛ لِضَخَامَتِهَا، وَلَوْ لِأَحَدِهِمْ أَقَلُّ مِنْ سُبْعٍ لَمْ يُجْزِ عَنْ أَحَدٍ، وَتُجْزِي عَمَّا دُونَ سَبْعَةٍ بِالْأَوْلَى. (فَجْرَ) نُصِبَ عَلَى الظَّرْفِيَّةِ (يَوْمَ النَّحْرِ إلَى آخِرِ أَيَّامِهِ) وَهِيَ ثَلَاثَةٌ أَفْضَلُهَا أَوَّلُهَا. (وَيُضَحِّي عَنْ وَلَدِهِ الصَّغِيرِ مِنْ مَالِهِ) صَحَّحَهُ فِي «الْهِدَايَةِ»، (وَقِيلَ: لَا) صَحَّحَهُ فِي«الْكَافِي». قَالَ: وَلَيْسَ لِلْأَبِ أَنْ يَفْعَلَهُ مِنْ مَالِ طِفْلِهِ، وَرَجَّحَهُ ابْنُ الشِّحْنَةِ. قُلْت: وَهُوَ الْمُعْتَمَدُ لِمَا فِي مَتْنِ «مَوَاهِبِ الرَّحْمَنِ» مِنْ أَنَّهُ أَصَحُّ مَا يُفْتَى بِهِ.

The following is stated in Radd al-Muhtar:

فَالْمُسَافِرُ لَا تَجِبُ عَلَيْهِ وَإِنْ تَطَوَّعَ بِهَا أَجْزَأَتْهُ عَنْهَا، وَهَذَا إذَا سَافَرَ قَبْلَ الشِّرَاءِ، فَإِنَّ الْمُشْتَرِيَ شَاةً لَهَا ثُمَّ سَافَرَ فَفِي الْمُنْتَقَى أَنَّهُ يَبِيعُهَا وَلَا يُضَحِّي بِهَا أَيْ لَا يَجِبُ عَلَيْهِ ذَلِكَ، وَكَذَا رُوِيَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدٍ، وَمِن الْمَشَايِخِ مَنْ فَصَّلَ فَقَالَ: إنْ كَانَ مُوسِرًا لَا يَجِبُ عَلَيْهِ وَإِلَّا يَنْبَغِي أَنْ يَجِبَ عَلَيْهِ وَلَا تَسْقُطُ بِسَفَرِهِ، وَإِنْ سَافَرَ بَعْدَ دُخُولِ الْوَقْتِ قَالُوا يَنْبَغِي أَنْ يَكُونَ الْجَوَابُ كَذَلِكَ اهـ ، ط عَن «الْهِنْدِيَّةِ» وَمِثْلُهُ فِي «الْبَدَائِعِ».

It is mentioned in the Fatāwā Qāḍī Khan:

موسر اشترى شاة للأضحية في أول أيام النحر فلم يضح حتى افتقر قبل مضي أيام النحر أو أنفق حتى انتقص النصاب سقطت عنه الأضحية، وإن افتقر بعد ما مضت أيام النحر كان عليه أن يتصدق بعينها أو بقيمتها ولا يسقط عنه الأضحية …. فإن سافر قبل أيام النحر باعها وسقطت عنه الأضحية بالمسافرة. (فصل في صفة الأضحية و وقت وجوبها و من تجب عليه)

Qurbani (sacrifice) is only obligatory on individuals who meet the requirement of being “sahib-e-nisab” (possessing the minimum threshold of wealth). The final condition mentioned as number 5 indicates that Qurbani is not obligatory on every person; rather, Islamic law has prescribed a specific threshold for it. The term “sahib-e-nisab” refers to a person who possesses wealth equal to or exceeding that threshold. Only such individuals are obligated to perform Qurbani, while those who do not meet the threshold are not obliged to do so. Therefore, it is crucial for every Muslim to be aware of the nisab (threshold) for Qurbani, so they can determine whether Qurbani is obligatory for them or not. Unfortunately, many people nowadays do not pay attention to this matter, which is a correctable issue.

The general threshold for Qurbani is as follows

1. Individuals who are obligated to pay Zakat are also obligated to perform Qurbani.
2. The nisab for Qurbani is the same as that for Sadaqat al-Fitr (charity given at the end of Ramadan). Therefore, the same calculation applies to both Qurbani and Sadaqat al-Fitr. If a person possesses wealth equal to or exceeding the nisab for Sadaqat al-Fitr, they are obligated to perform Qurbani. Further details will be mentioned below, God willing.

The rulings (fatwas) of Fatawa-e-Hindiya are as follows:

وَأَمَّا شَرَائِطُ الْوُجُوبِ منها: الْيَسَارُ وهو ما يَتَعَلَّقُ بِهِ وُجُوبِ صَدَقَةِ الْفِطْرِ دُونَ ما يَتَعَلَّقُ بِهِ وُجُوبُ الزَّكَاةِ. (كِتَابُ الْأُضْحِيَّةِ: )

There are some common misconceptions regarding the thresholds (nisab) of Zakat, Sadaqah al-Fitr, and Qurbani prevalent in our society. The following misconceptions need to be clarified:

1. Many people mistakenly believe that if a person is not obligated to pay Zakat, it is permissible to give them Zakat. They assume that not being eligible for Zakat is the only criterion for receiving it.

2. Similarly, many people are under the misconception that if a person is obligated to pay Zakat, they are only required to give Sadaqah al-Fitr and Qurbani. Conversely, if a person is not obligated to pay Zakat, they are not required to give Sadaqah al-Fitr and Qurbani either.

Remember, these are clear misconceptions because regarding the thresholds, Muslims fall into three categories:

Three Categories of Muslims based on the Thresholds of Zakat

1. The first category consists of those on whom Zakat is obligatory.

2. The second category consists of those for whom it is permissible to receive Zakat.

3. The third category consists of those on whom Zakat is not obligatory, and it is also not permissible for them to receive Zakat.

These are the three categories of Muslims based on the thresholds of Zakat, Sadaqah al-Fitr, and Qurbani.

First Category

Those who possess the minimum threshold (nisab) for Zakat.

Ruling

Zakat is obligatory for them, and if they also possess the nisab for Sadaqah al-Fitr and Qurbani during their respective times, then it is obligatory for them to fulfill the obligations of Sadaqah al-Fitr and Qurbani as well.

Second Category

Those who do not possess the nisab for Zakat, Sadaqah al-Fitr, or Qurbani.

Ruling

They are not obligated to fulfill the obligations of Zakat, Sadaqah al-Fitr, or Qurbani. This category is permissible to receive Zakat, Sadaqah al-Fitr, and obligatory charity.

Third Category

Those who do not possess the nisab for Zakat but possess the nisab for Sadaqah al-Fitr and Qurbani.

Ruling

Zakat is not obligatory for them, but Sadaqah al-Fitr and Qurbani are obligatory. They are not eligible to receive Zakat.

The difference between the threshold (nisab) for Qurbani and Zakat

The difference between the threshold for Qurbani and Zakat is that Zakat considers only four things: gold, silver, cash, and trade goods. On the other hand, Qurbani considers not only these four things but also additional possessions and wealth beyond necessity. This means that if a person becomes eligible for the threshold of Zakat due to these four items, they are considered to have reached the threshold for Zakat. However, if they become eligible for the threshold of Qurbani due to possessions beyond necessity, they are considered to have reached the threshold for Qurbani. It should be noted that the threshold for Sadaqah al-Fitr is the same as Qurbani.

Based on this detailed explanation, the following rulings are established

1. If a person possesses the threshold for Zakat, then Zakat is obligatory for them, and they are also obligated to fulfill Sadaqah al-Fitr and Qurbani. It is not permissible to give Zakat to such a person.
2. If a person does not possess the threshold for Zakat but possesses the threshold for Sadaqah al-Fitr and Qurbani, then Zakat is not obligatory for them. However, they are obligated to fulfill Sadaqah al-Fitr and Qurbani, and it is not permissible to give them Zakat.
3. Zakat is only permissible to be given to a person who does not possess the threshold for Zakat or the threshold for Sadaqah al-Fitr.

From this, it is evident that when giving Zakat, it is not sufficient to only consider whether Zakat is obligatory for the person. Rather, it is necessary to consider whether they possess the threshold for Sadaqah al-Fitr and Qurbani or not.

In conclusion

a person upon whom Zakat is obligatory is also obligated to perform Qurbani. However, if a person does not possess the threshold for Zakat but possesses the threshold for Sadaqah al-Fitr and Qurbani, then Qurbani is also obligatory for them. It is hoped that these fundamental principles will help dispel various misunderstandings.

Detailed Thresholds for Qurbani:

Qurbani is obligatory on five items known as “wealth of sacrifice”:

1. Gold
2. Silver
3. Trade goods
4. Cash
5. Possessions and goods beyond necessity

Based on these five items, the following conditions determine the obligation of Qurbani

1. If a person possesses only gold and does not have any of the other four items (i.e., silver, cash, trade goods, and possessions beyond necessity), then the threshold for gold is 87.84 grams. Qurbani is obligatory for them if their gold is equal to or exceeds this threshold. If their gold is less than this threshold, Qurbani is not obligatory for them.
2. If a person possesses only silver, only trade goods, or only cash from the five items, then the threshold for each item is 612.36 grams of silver. If their possession of silver, trade goods, or cash is equal to or exceeds this threshold, Qurbani is obligatory. If it is less than this threshold, Qurbani is not obligatory for them.
3. If a person possesses possessions and goods beyond necessity with a value equal to the threshold of 612.36 grams of silver, Qurbani is obligatory for them.
4. If a person possesses less than 87.84 grams of gold but also has some silver, trade goods, or cash, if the total value of these items reaches the threshold of 612.36 grams of silver, Qurbani is obligatory. Otherwise, it is not obligatory.
5. If a person possesses all five items (gold, silver, trade goods, cash, and possessions beyond necessity) or some of them, but none of the items individually reaches their respective threshold, then the total value of all the items is considered. If the total value reaches the threshold of 612.36 grams of silver, Qurbani is obligatory. Otherwise, it is not obligatory.
6. If a person possesses some gold or cash along with possessions and goods beyond necessity, and the total value of all these items reaches the threshold of 612.36 grams of silver, Qurbani is obligatory.

When is it necessary to have the threshold for Qurbani?

It is necessary for a person to possess the threshold for Qurbani during the three days of Qurbani (i.e., the 10th, 11th, and 12th of Dhul-Hijjah). If a person becomes eligible for the threshold after these three days, even if they reach the threshold after the completion of the three days, Qurbani is not obligatory for them. It should be clear that if a person becomes eligible for the threshold of Qurbani at any time before the sunset of the 12th of Dhul-Hijjah, Qurbani becomes obligatory for them. In such a case, if they do not find an opportunity to sacrifice an animal during the days of Qurbani, it is necessary for them to give the value of an average goat or sheep as Sadaqah after the completion of the days of Qurbani. If they are unable to offer the sacrifice during the days of Qurbani despite purchasing an animal, it is necessary for them to give that animal as Sadaqah.

قربانی واجب ہونے کی شرائط اور نصاب

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