The fundamental pillar of sacrifice5 min read

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The fundamental pillar of sacrifice

The fundamental pillar of sacrifice

It is important to understand that sacrificing an animal is necessary during the days of sacrifice because it is a fundamental requirement of sacrifice. Therefore, this act of worship is fulfilled by slaughtering an animal. That is why it is not permissible to offer an animal or its value as charity instead of sacrificing it. Even if a person who meets the criteria for obligation does not perform the sacrifice during these days, until the sunset of the 12th of Dhul-Hijjah, which means the three days of sacrifice have passed, then in such a situation, it is necessary to give the value of an average-sized goat or sheep as charity. If someone is unable to perform the sacrifice despite buying an animal, then it is necessary to give that same animal as charity now. (Source: Al-I’la al-Sunan, Badai al-Sana’i)

وَمِنْهَا: أَنْ لَا يَقُومَ غَيْرُهَا مَقَامَهَا حتى لو تَصَدَّقَ بِعَيْنِ الشَّاةِ أو قِيمَتِهَا في الْوَقْتِ لَا يَجْزِيهِ عن الْأُضْحِيَّةَ؛ لِأَنَّ الْوُجُوبَ تَعَلَّقَ بِالْإِرَاقَةِ، وَالْأَصْلُ أَنَّ الْوُجُوبَ إذا تَعَلَّقَ بِفِعْلٍ مُعَيَّنٍ أَنَّهُ لَا يَقُومُ غَيْرُهُ مَقَامَهُ كما في الصَّلَاةِ وَالصَّوْمِ وَغَيْرِهِمَا، بِخِلَافِ الزَّكَاةِ فإن الْوَاجِبَ أَدَاءُ جُزْءٍ من النِّصَابِ، وَلَوْ أَدَّى من مَالِ آخَرَ جَازَ؛ لِأَنَّ الْوَاجِبَ هُنَاكَ ليس جزأ من النِّصَابِ عِنْدَ أَصْحَابِنَا بَل الْوَاجِبُ مُطْلَقُ الْمَالِ وقد أدى، وَعِنْدَ بَعْضِهِمْ: وَإِنْ كان الْوَاجِبُ أَدَاءَ جُزْءٍ من النِّصَابِ لَكِنْ من حَيْثُ أنه مَالٌ لَا من حَيْثُ أنه جُزْءٌ من النِّصَابِ؛ لِأَنَّ مَبْنَى وُجُوبِ الزَّكَاةِ على التَّيْسِيرِ، وَالتَّيْسِيرُ في الْوُجُوبِ من حَيْثُ إنه مَالٌ لَا من حَيْثُ إنه الْعَيْنُ وَالصُّورَةُ، وَهَهُنَا الْوَاجِبُ في الْوَقْتِ إرَاقَةُ الدَّمِ شَرْعًا غَيْرُ مَعْقُولِ الْمَعْنَى فَيَقْتَصِرُ الْوُجُوبُ على مَوْرِدِ الشَّرْعِ، وَبِخِلَافِ صَدَقَةِ الْفِطْرِ أنها تَتَأَدَّى بِالْقِيمَةِ عِنْدَنَا؛ لِأَنَّ الْوَاجِبَ هُنَاكَ مَعْلُولٌ بِمَعْنَى الْإِغْنَاءِ، قال النبي : «أَغْنُوهُمْ عن الْمَسْأَلَةِ في مِثْلِ هذا الْيَوْمِ». وَالْإِغْنَاءُ يَحْصُلُ بإداء الْقِيمَةِ. وَاللهُ عز شَأْنُهُ أَعْلَمُ ……

وَمِنْهَا: أنها تُقْضَى إذَا فَاتَتْ عن وَقْتِهَا، وَالْكَلَامُ فيه في مَوْضِعَيْنِ: أَحَدُهُمَا: في بَيَانِ أنها مَضْمُونَةٌ بِالْقَضَاءِ في الْجُمْلَةِ، وَالثَّانِي: في بَيَانِ ما تُقْضَى بِهِ. أَمَّا الْأَوَّلُ فَلِأَنَّ وُجُوبَهَا في الْوَقْتِ أما لِحَقِّ الْعُبُودِيَّةِ أو لِحَقِّ شُكْرِ النِّعْمَةِ أو لِتَكْفِيرِ الْخَطَايَا؛ لِأَنَّ الْعِبَادَاتِ وَالْقُرُبَاتِ إنَّمَا تَجِبُ لِهَذِهِ الْمَعَانِي، وَهَذَا لَا يُوجِبُ الِاخْتِصَاصَ بِوَقْتٍ دُونَ وَقْتٍ، فَكَانَ الْأَصْلُ فيها أَنْ تَكُونَ وَاجِبَةً في جَمِيعِ الْأَوْقَاتِ وَعَلَى الدَّوَامِ بِالْقَدْرِ الْمُمْكِنِ إلَّا أَنَّ الْأَدَاءَ في السَّنَةِ مَرَّةً وَاحِدَةً في وَقْتٍ مَخْصُوصٍ أُقِيمَ مَقَامَ الْأَدَاءِ في جَمِيعِ السَّنَةِ تَيْسِيرًا على الْعِبَادِ فَضْلًا من اللہِ عز وجل وَرَحْمَةً كما أقيم صَوْمُ شَهْرٍ في السَّنَةِ مَقَامَ جَمِيعِ السَّنَةِ وَأُقِيمَ خَمْسُ صَلَوَاتٍ في يَوْمٍ وَلَيْلَةٍ مَقَامَ الصَّلَاةِ آنَاءَ اللَّيْلِ وَأَطْرَافَ النَّهَارِ، فإذا لم يُؤَدِّ في الْوَقْتِ بَقِيَ الْوُجُوبُ في غَيْرِهِ لِقِيَامِ الْمَعْنَى الذي له وَجَبَتْ في الْوَقْتِ. وَأَمَّا الثَّانِي فَنَقُولُ: إنها لَا تُقْضَى بِالْإِرَاقَةِ؛ لِأَنَّ الْإِرَاقَةَ لَا تُعْقَلُ قُرْبَةً، وَإِنَّمَا جُعِلَتْ قُرْبَةً بِالشَّرْعِ في وَقْتٍ مَخْصُوصٍ فَاقْتَصَرَ كَوْنُهَا قُرْبَةً على الْوَقْتِ الْمَخْصُوصِ فَلَا تُقْضَى بَعْدَ خُرُوجِ الْوَقْتِ، ثُمَّ قَضَاؤُهَا قد يَكُونُ بِالتَّصَدُّقِ بِعَيْنِ الشَّاةِ حَيَّةً، وقد يَكُونُ بِالتَّصَدُّقِ بِقِيمَةِ الشَّاةِ، فَإِنْ كان أَوْجَبَ التَّضْحِيَةَ على نَفْسِهِ بِشَاةٍ بِعَيْنِهَا فلم يُضَحِّهَا حتى مَضَتْ أَيَّامُ النَّحْرِ يَتَصَدَّقْ بِعَيْنِهَا حَيَّةً؛ لِأَنَّ الْأَصْلَ في الْأَمْوَالِ التَّقَرُّبُ بِالتَّصَدُّقِ بها لَا بِالْإِتْلَافِ وهو الْإِرَاقَةُ إلَّا أَنَّهُ نُقِلَ إلَى الْإِرَاقَةِ مُقَيَّدًا في وَقْتٍ مَخْصُوصٍ حتى يَحِلَّ تَنَاوُلُ لَحْمِهِ لِلْمَالِكِ وَالْأَجْنَبِيِّ وَالْغَنِيِّ وَالْفَقِيرِ لِكَوْنِ الناس أَضْيَافَ اللهِ عز شَأْنُهُ في هذا الْوَقْتِ، فإذا مَضَى الْوَقْتُ عَادَ الْحُكْمُ إلَى الْأَصْلِ وهو التَّصَدُّقُ بِعَيْنِ الشَّاةِ، سَوَاءٌ كان مُوسِرًا أو مُعْسِرًا؛ لِمَا قُلْنَا، وَكَذَلِكَ الْمُعْسِرُ إذَا اشْتَرَى شَاةً لِيُضَحِّيَ بها فلم يُضَحِّ حتى مَضَى الْوَقْتُ؛ لِأَنَّ الشِّرَاءَ لِلْأُضْحِيَّةِ من الْفَقِيرِ كَالنَّذْرِ بِالتَّضْحِيَةِ، وَأَمَّا الْمُوسِرُ إذَا اشْتَرَى شَاةً لِلْأُضْحِيَّةِ فَكَذَلِكَ الْجَوَابُ.

مجمع الانہر

وَفِي الشَّرْعِ: هِيَ ذَبْحُ حَيَوَانٍ مَخْصُوصٍ بِنِيَّةِ الْقُرْبَةِ فِي وَقْتٍ مَخْصُوصٍ وَهُوَ يَوْمُ الْأَضْحَى، وَشَرَائِطُهَا: الْإِسْلَامُ وَالْيَسَارُ الَّذِي يَتَعَلَّقُ بِهِ صَدَقَةُ الْفِطْرِ فَتَجِبُ عَلَى الْأُنْثَى، وَسَبَبُهَا الْوَقْتُ وَهُوَ أَيَّامُ النَّحْرِ، وَرُكْنُهَا ذَبْحُ مَا يَجُوزُ ذَبْحُهَا، وَحُكْمُهَا الْخُرُوجُ عَنْ عُهْدَةِ الْوَاجِبِ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالْوُصُولِ إلَى الثَّوَابِ فِي الْعُقْبَى

Rectifying a grave misunderstanding

Based on the previous discussion, it has become clear that the act of sacrifice can only be fulfilled by slaughtering an animal. It is not acceptable to fulfill the act of sacrifice by giving money to a poor person or spending it on welfare activities instead of performing the actual sacrifice. Those who believe that it is better to help the poor instead of sacrificing animals misunderstand the true essence of sacrifice. They question what is gained by sacrificing millions of animals every year. In this regard, the following points are mentioned:

The command of Allah and His Messenger (peace be upon him) takes precedence above all else!

In this matter, it is essential to internalize the principle that for a believer, the command of Allah and His Messenger (peace be upon him) is the most important thing. The command of Allah and His Messenger (peace be upon him) holds superiority over everything else, and it has no need for any proof, interpretation, or rational justification. It should be accepted unconditionally. This is the true sign of love for Allah and His Messenger (peace be upon him) and the demand of their greatness and servitude, that no intellectual speculations should be allowed to run ahead of their commandments. Rather, one should bow their head in submission, just as Prophet Ibrahim and Prophet Ismail (peace be upon them) did when they submitted to the command of Allah. Only then did they succeed. Reflect upon the fact that when Prophet Ibrahim (peace be upon him) received the command to sacrifice his beloved son, did he question Allah about the wisdom and benefit of sacrificing this innocent child? Why didn’t he think that someone else should sacrifice their son instead? After all, what crime had his son committed? Putting aside all these questions, Prophet Ibrahim (peace be upon him) girded his loins to fulfill the command of his Lord and Master, because his son was also a gift from Allah, and it was His command. And since He is the All-Wise Lord, it was His right to give such a command, and it was the duty of the servant to accept it gladly.

As per the poet’s words:
Life was given, it was His to give
Indeed, it is true that the right was not fulfilled…

This gives every Muslim a profound lesson that whatever command comes from Allah and His Messenger (peace be upon him), it should be accepted without questioning, whether it makes sense to the intellect or not, whether it appears beneficial or not! The true slave and servant is one who humbly submits to the command of the Master and does not abandon it based on any rational speculation. Those servants who keep asking about the wisdom and benefits of their Master’s command are quickly dismissed from His service.

Furthermore, it is important to note that a limited intellect cannot comprehend the wisdom and benefits behind every command of the Master. It becomes difficult for a limited intellect to grasp the wisdom and benefits associated with every command. It is like trying to measure gold and silver with the scales of iron!

The believer’s vision is based on the command of Allah.

Muslims have firm belief that any command of Allah is not devoid of wisdom and benefits. When the All-Wise Lord issues a command to perform a certain act, it is an indication that the act is filled with countless virtues. The more we ponder upon the virtues and wisdom behind that act, the more its benefits will unfold, and we will feel the increasing greatness of Allah in our hearts. Today, when science explores the practices of the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him), it finds that they are filled with benefits and wisdom.

However, for a Muslim, all these wisdoms and benefits hold a secondary and subordinate status. The most significant aspect for them is that it is the command of Allah and His Messenger (peace be upon him). Accepting a command based solely on its benefits and advantages does not truly fulfill the demand of recognizing the greatness of Allah. Instead, recognizing the greatness of Allah demands that His command be followed solely based on its intrinsic authority. This is the true essence of a Muslim’s faith and servitude.

Islam is the greatest well-wisher of the poor.

When it comes to the matter of cooperating with the poor, Islam is the greatest well-wisher. Islam has a vast system of cooperation with the poor, including Zakat, Sadaqat al-Fitr, expiations, voluntary charities, and various other financial matters. Similarly, the teachings of Islam regarding cooperation and empathy with neighbors and others are unparalleled in any other religion or civilization. Therefore, for someone who considers Islam as the greatest well-wisher of the poor, objecting to the command of sacrifice is entirely baseless. In the following, some important benefits related to sacrifice are mentioned, which indicate that if we focus solely on sacrifice, the benefits it brings to the poor are immense.

قربانی کا بنیادی رُکن

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Umme Muhammad

I am an Islamic Scholar. I have expertise in Ahadith, Fiqh, Logics, and the Arabic language. I have a specialty in Translation, Tafseer, Arabic Language, and Ahadith learning. To get started with me, Book Now one-to-one Session, or let us know what do you like in the contact form.

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