Teachings of Shariah Regarding the Summer Season
إِنَّ فِى خَلْقِ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضِ وَٱخْتِلَـٰفِ ٱلَّيْلِ وَٱلنَّهَارِ لَـَٔايَـٰتٍۢ لِّأُو۟لِى ٱلْأَلْبَـٰبِ (3:190)
Surely, in the creation of the heavens and the earth, and in the alternation of night and day, there are signs for the people of wisdom,
It is regrettable that those who recite this verse do not ponder over it. The alternation of day and night gives rise to the seasons, and Allah Subhanahoo Wata’ala has created four seasons throughout the year: winter, summer, spring, and autumn. These four seasons are great blessings from Allah Ta’ala, as human beings cannot sustain their lives in just one season based on their physical constitution. Instead, they require different seasons for bodily manifestations. Therefore, one of the four seasons is summer.
During summer, days are longer, and nights are shorter. The temperature is higher. Summer serves as a lesson and admonition for Muslims, drawing their attention towards the Divine nature. Even in the changes of seasons, there are hidden lessons of admonition for humans. The proximity and distance of the moon and the sun play a role in the changing seasons. When the sun moves away from the Earth, extreme cold sets in, and when it comes closer to the Earth, intense heat prevails. The sun and the moon are integral parts of the cosmic system, and their proximity or distance leads to the intensity of heat and the coolness of winters. The heat of this world is a part of the heat of the hereafter.
Realize the severity of this heat and pray to be saved from it. The person who repeats a thousand times that it is very hot, hot, and so on should think about whether this will cool down the weather. No, it will not. By continuously saying such things, the person will not be spared from the harmful effects of the season, nor will they escape the sins committed by themselves or the injustices they cause to others. Rather, they will have to do a lot to keep themselves safe in this world. They need to take care of themselves, protect themselves from sins, safeguard their worship, and save others from their evil actions. In other words, they must make every effort to protect themselves from the heat and severity of the hereafter.
During the heat of this world, when one feels extremely thirsty and the throat becomes dry, one should think of the thirst of the field of resurrection and hell. At that moment, they should contemplate escaping from that condition. Abu Hurairah (رضي الله عنه) narrated that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said, ‘Whether it is the summer or winter season, act according to my Sunnah and seek refuge with Allah from the Fire three times and ask for Paradise three times. Through this act, Paradise and Hellfire themselves will pray for our well-being.’ Similarly, as reported by Anas ibn Malik (رضي الله عنه), the Prophet (peace be upon him) advised:
‘Ask Allah Subhanahoo Wata’ala for Paradise three times.'( اللهم إني أسئلك الجنَّةَ ) Paradise supplicates, “O Allah! Admit them into Paradise,” and the one who seeks refuge three times seeks refuge from the torment of Hell. (اللهُمَّ إِنِّي أَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنَ النَّارِ) Hell supplicates, “O Allah! Save them from Hellfire” (Sunan al-Tirmidhi, Hadith 2572). Similarly, the Noble Prophet (peace be upon him) mentioned the fortunate individuals who will attain the shade of the Throne on the Day of Judgment and perform seven specific actions to safeguard themselves from the heat of that day. We should strive to include ourselves among those seven individuals. Abu Hurairah (رضي الله عنه) reported that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: “On that day, there will be no shade except the shade of Allah’s Throne for seven types of people:
A just ruler.
A youth who grew up in the worship of Allah Subhanahoo Wata’ala.
A person whose heart is attached to the mosque.
Two individuals who gather and separate based on their love for Allah Subhanahoo Wata’ala, who are brought together and separated on the basis of that love.
A person who is invited by a beautiful and honorable woman, but they respond by saying, “I fear Allah Subhanahoo Wata’ala.”
A person who gives charity in such secrecy that even their left hand does not know what their right hand spent, and a person who remembers Allah in solitude and their eyes overflow with tears. (Sahih al-Bukhari) Take care of yourself during the summer season.
Seeking refuge from diseases caused by heat
Concerns arise regarding the emergence of fever and various other diseases due to heat. To protect oneself from them, along with adopting external measures, it is essential to continuously supplicate Allah Subhanahoo Wata’ala to be saved from these ailments. Sitting in the sun without reason is not advisable: One of the significant benefits of the summer season is sunlight, which is crucial for plants. It helps crops and fruits to ripen. Sunlight also enables our bodies to produce Vitamin D, which is essential for our health and strengthens our bones. Moreover, many harmful germs and toxins are eradicated from the body. However, sitting in the sun or exposing oneself to unnecessary heat is not a good practice because the heat of summer is akin to the intensity of Hellfire. Therefore, sitting in the sun without reason is equivalent to subjecting oneself to the scorching heat of Hellfire. Additionally, certain illnesses arise due to this heat. Hence, Islam has prohibited sitting in the sun and excessive heat for the well-being and ease of humanity. Preserving oneself from the heat: During the summer season, it is important to find shaded areas to protect oneself from the heat. Seeking such places for fulfilling needs or engaging in actions that cause inconvenience or harm to others is necessary to avoid. There are narrations in blessed Hadiths that mention the condemnation of such actions. (Sunan Abi Dawood, Hadith 26) Wearing a head covering to protect oneself from heat and cold: It is advised by the wise that those who wish to safeguard themselves from illness should protect their heads and feet from both cold and heat. Thus, during intense heat and sun, the Noble Prophet (ﷺ) and his esteemed companions would advise Muslims to seek shade (Sahih Muslim, Hadith 1298)
Sleeping on the rooftop during summer:
It is a common practice to sleep on rooftops during hot summer nights. However, it is recommended to sleep on rooftops only when they have proper parapets. Otherwise, sleeping on an unprotected rooftop has been prohibited in the blessed Hadiths. This is to avoid the possibility of someone being accustomed to sleeping and unintentionally falling from the rooftop, resulting in harm or even death. (Al-Adab Al-Mufrad, Hadith 1194)
Avoid swimming in rivers and lakes during the summer season.
To protect oneself from the heat, it is a popular activity among young people to swim in rivers. If you are an expert swimmer, there is no harm in swimming in a small river during suitable times when there is no danger. However, even in such situations, it is important to consider certain matters. Swim while wearing modest attire that conceals the entire body, including the parts that are normally visible.
Do not swim without the permission or knowledge of your parents.
Do not enter deep areas of rivers.
Avoid playing music or engaging in such activities while swimming in pools or lakes.
Swimming in places where both men and women gather is not permissible. It is not allowed to swim in such places, even individually. Swimming in such open places can lead to various moral problems and goes against the Islamic temperament. Therefore, even in secluded areas, refrain from swimming alone.
Utilizing Suitable Fruits and Vegetables for Summer
Each season has its own characteristics, and likewise, each season offers a variety of delicious and nutritious fruits and vegetables that are specific to that time. During the summer season, Allah has blessed us with numerous fruits, vegetables, and products that not only provide satisfaction to our taste buds but also help in cooling our bodies, eliminating harmful toxins, and replenishing essential vitamins. These foods also aid in protecting against diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and various other illnesses. Examples of summer fruits include mangoes, watermelons, muskmelons, peaches, plums, lychees, strawberries, papayas, and apricots. By incorporating these fruits into our diet during the summer season, we can effectively combat the detrimental effects of the season. Additionally, certain popular and special vegetables during the summer season include cucumber, bottle gourd, bitter gourd, snake gourd, eggplant, tomatoes, green chilli, and cucumber, which are highly important for maintaining good health.
Expressing Gratitude for the Blessings
The demand for such abundant blessings is that humans not only express words of praise and description to the Creator of these blessings but also show gratitude through their actions and obedience while avoiding being ungrateful.
Avoiding Bathing in Rainwater
It is established through blessed traditions (Hadith) that bathing during the intense heat of summer is recommended. (Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 1898: 142) Protect your acts of worship during the summer season.
Offering Fajr Prayer During Summer
During the summer season, the days are long, and the nights are short, and due to exhaustion from daily activities, there is a possibility of missing the Isha prayer and having incomplete rest during the early morning hours, which can make it difficult to offer the Fajr prayer. Therefore, it is necessary to prepare oneself mentally and make an effort to attend both of these prayers in the congregation. These prayers are emphasized in the authentic traditions (Hadith), and participation in them is encouraged. (Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 1751)
Do Not Abandon Prayer During Travel
There is no exemption for neglecting prayer in a state of physical or mental difficulty. The intensity of summer and travelling are both circumstances that cause a person to experience hardship. However, those with strong faith do not worry about the difficulties in fulfilling acts of obedience to Allah, even in such circumstances, and they continue to observe their prayers.
Harvesting Wheat and Paying ‘Ushar
During the summer season, wheat is harvested, and many fruits in gardens become ripe. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to fulfil the obligation of giving Zakat or Sadaqah during these occasions. Detailed instructions regarding Zakat and Sadaqah can be obtained from qualified scholars as needed.
Protecting One’s Modesty During Summer
Due to the intensity of summer, people generally wear lightweight and sometimes revealing clothing. Especially while sleeping at night, many men only wear shorts, undergarments, or just a loincloth. Therefore, in such hot weather conditions, it is important to select clothing that covers the body adequately so that the hidden parts of the body (for men, below the navel to below the knees) are not exposed. When going to sleep at night, it is advised to wear lower garments, such as loincloths, beneath the waist. If one needs to remove certain clothes due to excessive sweating, it should be ensured that the clothing does not fall below the navel or leave the knees and thighs exposed. Unnecessarily uncovering the private parts is condemned. (Mishkat al-Masabih, Hadith: 3125) Especially during summers, it is disliked to
Protect yourself from the heat in the summer season
In the summer season, when going to the roof for a night stay, be cautious as the roofs of houses in rural areas are connected to each other, and other household members also come to their roofs to sleep. It is strictly forbidden to peep into others’ houses and look at their women. Make every effort to avoid this action as it has been strongly condemned in the Hadiths. (Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2158) While bathing in ponds or during rainfall, if others are wearing thin clothes that reveal their bodies, make sure to protect yourself from looking at them with bad intentions.
Avoid causing discomfort to others in the summer season
During the summer season, people sit in shaded places to protect themselves from the heat. However, some ignorant and foolish people speak loudly and create disturbances in shaded places, making it impossible for others to sit there. It is strictly prohibited according to Islamic law. Due to excessive sweating in the summer, a bad odour is produced, causing great discomfort to those sitting nearby. Out of respect, they do not complain, and sometimes they cannot even move to an alternative place. This is considered harmful according to the teachings of Islam, and it is forbidden. Therefore, take care to control your body odour by maintaining cleanliness.”
Protect others from distress in the summer season
People sit in shaded places to protect themselves from the heat during the summer season, but some people, especially the ignorant, indulge in talking loudly and creating disturbances in shaded areas, making it impossible to sit there. It is strictly forbidden to do so. To avoid sweating, people often use perfumes and scents. It is essential that the fragrance or scent used does not cause discomfort to others, meaning it should not be too strong so that individuals with sensitive nature may not suffer from discomfort. Similarly, in our society, workers and employees also experience the intensity of the heat, just like us. It is the distribution of Allah that He created us as those who provide them with work, and they are the ones who work for us. Taking care of their comfort, shade, and food is also part of the teachings of Sharia. In the summer season, it is necessary to place small containers of water in the shade for insects and timely arrange for their grain and water. It is also necessary for individuals living in social settings not to deprive others of public places and traffic signals by occupying them unnecessarily, such as using ACs and fans in front of shops or monopolizing public seats. During the rainy season, there is mud on the roads due to water. It is very important to protect others, especially while travelling, from splashes of mud, so that our carelessness does not cause others inconvenience, pain, or hardship.”
Take care of water distribution in the summer season
The most delightful and pleasant blessing during the summer season is cold water. On the Day of Judgment, the first account of blessings will be of cold water. Water is a great blessing, so to acknowledge and show gratitude for this blessing, arrange for water distribution on a large scale as a charitable act. This can include constructing wells or water filtration plants near rivers or canals, installing coolers in mosques and schools, especially closing sweet water taps on Fridays, and so on. Similarly, on a small scale, provide water arrangements on houses’ rooftops for labourers, travellers, students, and even birds and animals. Avoid using public resources for your personal benefits, such as using water in public places or traffic signals. It is best to consider water distribution as an ongoing charity. Distributing water is a means of seeking forgiveness. It is reported that anyone who draws water from a well for